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Through his personal perspective and interpretation Kissinger manages to describe the way in which the art of diplomacy and the balance of power have created the world we are currently living in, as well as the problem regarding the Americans and their idealism and mistrust of the Old World that sought to conduct the world to a unique kind of foreign policy.
Covering more than three centuries of history, Kissinger demonstrates how modern diplomacy emerged from the trials and experiences of the balance of linie de frumusețe anti aging 4ever proxy, of warfare and peacemaking and also why America refused at some point to learn its linie de frumusețe anti aging 4ever proxy. Based on a personal experience and knowledge, Kissinger provides the reader a series of famous and intimate portraits of the world leaders, namely de Gaulle, Nixon, Hitler, Reagan, and Gorbachev.
The reader is simply stuck in front of the splendor of the detailed and original observations on the secret negotiations, great events and the art of statesmanship. Analyzing the differences in the national styles of diplomacy, Kissinger shows how various societies produce special ways of conducting foreign policy and also how Americans, from the very beginning, sought a distinctive foreign policy based on idealism.
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What makes this book so valuable is the fact that Kissinger illustrates all his points with personal insights and examples from his own experience. The history begins in Europe in the seventeenth century, but quickly advances up to the World Wars and then the Cold War. Kissinger refers to himself numerous times in the book, especially when recounting the Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford presidencies. Crema cu hialuronic chapters I decided to focus my attention on are the first 12 chapters — up to the end of the Second World War, as well as chapters related to the Cold War.
Kissinger begins his masterpiece with focus on America and its tour among international politics. In the twentieth century, no other country has influenced international relations as decisively and at the same as ambivalently as the United States. Kissinger sees America as having two different approaches to foreign policy: the first one where America acts as a beacon and the second one where it acts as a crusader. Both schools of thoughts conceive as normal a global international order, based on democracy, free commerce and international law.
The fact that the new world order is marked by a contradiction of fragmentation and globalization, determines Kissinger to point out that all the major nations are actually facing a new world order within a multistate system in which they have had no experience.
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America must align its values and historical experiences in order to reach to the new world order. In the second chapter, entitled The Hinge: Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson, Kissinger studies the two American presidents — Roosevelt and Wilson — after America was projected into the world affairs due to two factors: the fast expanding of the power and the gradual collapse of the international system centered on Europe.
Both Roosevelt and Wilson recognized that America had a crucial role to play in world affairs. During Wilson Administration, America emerged a key player in the world affairs, proclaiming principles which marked a revolutionary departure for Old World diplomats.
These principles concern that peace depends on the spread of democracy, that state should be judged by the same ethnical criteria as individuals, and that the national interest consist of adopting a universal system of law.
Wilson was the originator of the vision of a universal world organization, the League of Nations, which has the role to maintain the peace through collective security rather than alliances.
The idea that peace depends above all on promoting democratic institutions has remained a staple of America thought to the present day.
Wilson, however, moved his people to war by proclaiming its cause to be none other than spreading American ideals and by his view that freedom for America was no different from freedom for the world.
The third chapter: From Universality to Equilibrium: Richelieu, William of Orange, and Pitt, manages to present the crema antirid cu dioxid de siliciu of the balance of power and of the equilibrium.
The European balance of power system emerged in the seventeenth century from the final collapse of the medieval aspiration to universality — a concept of world order that represented a blending of traditions of the Roman Empire and the Catholic Church.
During the seventeenth century the Roman Empire had the potential to dominate Europe.
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France and Great Britain were two states who respected this domination. However, the Holy Roman Empire had never succeeded in achieving the whole control over the world because of the lack of transportation and communication system.
The main conflict regarded the church and the control separation within the church.
The Holy Roman Empire aspired to translate the universal claims to a political system. With the concept of unity collapsing, the emerging states of Europe needed some principle to justify their heresy and to maintain their relations.
The two concepts are interdepended. The balance of power replaced the nostalgia for universal monarchy with the consolation that each state would somehow contribute to the safety and progress of the others.
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Moving further to chapter four — The Concert of Europe: Great Britain, Austria and Russia, the reader encounters the idea covered during the Congress of Vienna, which established a century of international order uninterrupted by any war.
No war at all took place among the Great Powers for forty years, and after the Crimean War inno general war for another sixty years. Paradoxically, this prevenirea ridurilor order, which was created more explicitly in the name of the balance of power than any other before, relied at least on power to maintain itself. This unique state of affairs occurred because the equilibrium was designed by everyone.
But the most important thing was that the Continental countries were knit together by a sense of shared values.
- Michael Jackson Michael Joseph Jackson August 29, — June 25, a fost un artist american, dansator, cântăreţ-compozitor, muzician, şi filantrop.
- Înfăţişarea dumneavoastră este catifelată şi radiantă iar corpul dumneavoastră se simte mai plin de energie, mai ferm şi mai conturat.
Chapter five: Two Revolutionaries: Napoleon III and Bismarck emphasizes that after the collapse of the Metternich system which nearly produced two decades of conflict: the war of Piedmont and France against Austria inthe war over Schleswig-Holstein ofthe Austro-Prussian War of and the Franco-Prussian War ofa new balance of power emerged in Europe.
France, who had already participated in three wars, lost its position of predominance to Germany. The concept Realpolitik is widely developed by Kissinger in chapter six: Realpolitik Turns to Itself.
Realpolitik refers to politics or diplomacy based primarily on power and on practical and material factors and considerations, rather than ideological notions or moralistic or ethical premises.