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- The Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides Derived from Marine Organisms: An Overview
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Mar Drugs. Published online Nov Received Oct 12; Accepted Nov Copyright © by the authors. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Marine-derived antioxidant polysaccharides have aroused extensive attention because of their potential nutritional and therapeutic benefits.
However, the comprehensive comparison of identified marine-derived antioxidant polysaccharides is still inaccessible, which would facilitate the discovery of more efficient antioxidants from marine organisms.
Thus, this review summarizes the sources, chemical composition, structural characteristics, and antioxidant capacity of marine antioxidant polysaccharides, as well as their protective in vivo effects mediated by antioxidative stress reported in the last few years —and especially highlights the dominant role of marine algae as antioxidant polysaccharide source.
In addition, the relationships between the chemical composition and structural characteristics of marine antioxidant polysaccharides with their antioxidant capacity were also discussed.
The antioxidant activity was found to be determined by multiple factors, including molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, sulfate position and its degree. Keywords: antioxidant activity, marine organisms, polysaccharides, chemical composition, structural characteristics, structure—activity relationship 1.
Introduction Oxygen is a key substance in the normal metabolic activities of aerobic organisms [ 1 ]. ROS play an important role in various physiological and biochemical activities of organisms.
The excessive ROS not only impair the nutritional value of food through oxidation before consumption, but also damage the normal function of cell lipids, proteins, and DNA to induce diseases [ 5 ], such as cancer, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, ho swiss anti-aging tren model diseases, aging, and immune system damage [ 67 ]. Oxidative stress is considered as an imbalance between the prooxidants and antioxidants in the body, and usually eliminated by antioxidant defense system [ 8 ], including many antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants.
The most effective and widely used strategy to reduce oxidative stress is to supplement exogenous antioxidants [ 9 ]. In recent years, there have been concerns over the safety of synthetic antioxidants, therefore antioxidants derived naturally are attracting more attention.
Natural products, such as carotenoids, tocopherols, and flavonoids show strong antioxidant activity in scavenging free radicals and relieving cellular damage caused by oxidation and have been added in health supplements, food additives, and pharmaceuticals [ 101112 ].
Another group of naturally-derived chemicals, polysaccharides, have also attracted wide attention because of their promising in vitro and in vivo biological activity [ 1314151617 ]. Marine organisms have been considered as a promising source of nutrients and bioactive compounds [ 1819 ].
In recent years, many polysaccharides from marine organisms with antioxidant activity have been isolated and identified, but the characteristics of these polysaccharides were rarely summarized and their structure-activity relationships were scarcely reported.
This paper reviews the research progress in antioxidant polysaccharides derived from marine organisms, including their source, type, chemical components, structural characteristics and antioxidant capacity, and the protective in vivo effects mediated by antioxidative stress.
Finally, the relationships between the chemical structure and antioxidant activity of these polysaccharides will also be discussed. Marine-Derived Antioxidant Polysaccharides In the past few years, many studies have revealed that polysaccharides derived from marine organisms exhibit antioxidant activity, which can scavenge 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl DPPHhydroxyl radical, peroxyl radical, alkyl radical, H2O2, superoxide radical and ABTS radical, and exhibit reducing power ability.
The polysaccharides are mainly derived from marine algae, followed by marine microorganisms and marine animals Table 1. Data from individual studies also suggested that marine-derived antioxidant polysaccharides could alleviate the oxidative stress-mediated diseases, such as liver injury, diabetes, ho swiss anti-aging tren model, neurodegenerative disease, colitis, and breast cancer. The effect could be explained by three distinct mechanisms, including scavenging the ROS, regulating the antioxidant system or oxidative stress-mediated signaling pathways Figure 1implying the complicated interactions of marine-derived antioxidant polysaccharides in reducing the oxidative stress.