Claude mifflin elvetia anti imbatranire,
Standard is a common and average model of something 1.
A norm, on the other hand, according to the provisions of the Claude mifflin elvetia anti imbatranire of The aims of standardization include: ensuring the quality and reliability of products, processes and services, as well as facilitating communication by defining terms, labels and symbols for common use. Whereas conditions of standardization include: unclassified nature and general availability of standards, respect for public interest, freedom of participation in the process of the development and use of standards, making it possible for all person interested to be involved in the claude mifflin elvetia anti imbatranire of developing standards, consensus as a bases for the determination f the content of standards, unification and coherence of the provisions of standards, use of effective scientific and technical achievements.
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Act of Decisions taken by heads of Polish services cannot he considered standards due the lack of their uniformity. By comparison, in the USA there is a quality control system for polygraph testing, as well as licensing requirement in many states ; x organizational norms regulations adopted by professional organizations, e.
Why do we need standards? Most practical areas of polygraph testing in Poland are not governed by any regulations. This poses a risk of violations and incompetence, and eventually loss of trust to examiners and the testing method.
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There was a similar problem in the 80s and 90s of the twentieth century, as there were no standards or regulations in place regarding the practice of polygraph testing. Together with cost cuts and severe competition on the polygraph testing market, it leads to a pathological situation, where a possibly large number of test are performed at the expense of their reliability.
The American society started, to defend itself against polygraph testing. The U. Congress introduced some restrictions on polygraph testing. Two legal acts deserve particular attention.
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The first was adopted in under the title Americans 3 The international nature of ASTM was enhanced by adding the Word International to its name in However, the conservative approach received more enthusiasm, i. Balsam de buze academie law forbids asking any questions about medical records, which also concerned included alcohol consumption and taking medicines.
It excluded Government agencies and public order bodies, as well as employees of the pharmaceutical and nuclear industries. The American experience shows that Poland should learn from the mistakes of others. Currently, the idea of deregulating gains more and more support among various professionals and specialists.
However, in the area of polygraph testing there has been the opposite trend-an increasing need of introducing new regulations and standards.
Polish efforts to introduce uniform high quality standards of psycho-physiological examination based on solid scientific research In Poland common standards for polygraph testing have been developed by specialists mainly through exchange of information at scientific seminars.
Every year the police and the military police take turns in organizing a series of polygraph seminars.
It gave an impulse to some serious work on the standardization of polygraph testing in Poland. The Association of Polish Polygraphers SPP that was established in provides another platform for work on uniform standards. After a few years of standstill the operation of the Association was reactivated in It pointed out varied levels of the qualification of experts employed in state institutions, and, consequently, the need of regular professional training, including consultations with experienced trainers from the countries leading in polygraph testing USA, Israel.
It also expressed regret that many investigators among officers and employees of the judiciary are not fully aware how to use polygraph in investigations, so they fail to exhaust all its possibilities. They too should undergo the necessary training.
Polygraph testing might be more useful in psychophysiological testing for operational verification of sources of information and employment purposes not only with, regard to candidates for service 4 but also for promotion to sensitive posts, granting access to most important state secrets, as well as regular control of officers.
As for new areas of application, it is suggested that psychophysiological testing 5 might prove useful in handling crown witnesses, as well as persons who apply for security clearance, asylum or a refugee status. Some of these proposals would require drafting proper guidelines, regulations, or even reform of legal acts.
The memorandum also pointed out polygraph testing services offered on the private market. There has been some reasonable concern about unqualified persons being used as experts.
In response to these concerns the SPP declared its readiness to present any interested bodies with a list of recommended persons, whose qualifications raise no doubt. Generally, however, Polish polygraphers have bright future in front of them.
The development of polygraph testing in Poland has been appreciated by the APA, an international organization that enjoys established reputation. According to its management, Poland might even assume a leading role in Europe.
Его руки двигались по ее груди. Сьюзан ничего не чувствовала.
APA is ready to organize a serious scientific seminar like the one that regarded Asia and Pacific and was held in Singapore in the beginning of In the next few years n APA accredited office is expected to be established in Poland for the whole Europe. Standards with international outreach.
The first of those organizations was established in It gathers three thousand polygraphers. The latter is a standardizing organization set up in More and more often you can hear abort a possibility of using polygraph testing for control and therapy of persons convicted of sex crimes. Such advanced programmes are carried out to the United States and Great Britain. On 1 January new APA standards of practice drafted were introduced.
They laid down the following roles: x obligatory use of movement detector; x general requirement of using only those techniques that were stipulated in the validation and are, therefore, confirmed scientifically ; x criteria for use of specific techniques for particular type of testing: in order to gather evidence, for claude mifflin elvetia anti imbatranire purposes of confrontation, detection investigation or selection; x Requirement of calibrating the polygraph at least once every 6 months Le.
It should be noted that validus means in Latin: strong, tough, and effective 6. IEC 7 - through examination and presenting objective evidence confirms that certain requirement have been met with regard to the intended use. In other words, the aim is to confirm that the test measures the parameters it was designed to measure.
The analysis process carried out using a specific method has to be credible, provide reliable results and run efficiently, ensure coherence, i. As Pamela Shaw APA President pointed out rightly, the requirement to use validated testing methods is not a new idea, of course. Other fields such as medicine and psychology eventually came to the same conclusion, albeit many years after the fields were established.
It has turned out to be a great thing for them.
Try to imagine, if you can, what fields of medicine and psychology would be like if there were no 6 W. Ogólne wymagnia dotyczące kompeimcji laboratoriów badawczych i wzorcujących, Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny Polish Committee for StandardizationWarszawa Validation serves a number of important functions, not the least of which is protecting the public from misuse, incompetence and quackery 9. We should remember that the method consists not only in asking a sequence of test questions.
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It is also a set of rules to be implemented with regard to the pre-test interview, formulating and discussing the test questions, presentation of stimuli questions during the test, as well as the method of analysis of the test results. According to the APA guidelines, for a research method to be considered scientifically reliable, it needs to have to following features: x the form of the test, needs to comply with research rules for the selection o aims, formulating questions and giving stimuli during the test; x the form of the test needs to be based on scientifically reliable analysis method for test results; x the studies on the new techniques should be published in Polygraph, or other Independent scientific magazines, government or university publications, at least twice.
Also other, state and national, polygraphist association are expected to do so. Polish Internal Security Agency has also been applying these standards.